Insulation of the cottage. What and how should be insulated? on the Nedvio website

Many people dream of the opportunity to be at their dacha not only in summer, but also in autumn, and especially in winter, without having to be afraid of severe frosts. Usually, when building a summer house, owners rarely think about such an important point as its timely insulation. This article will discuss exactly this. The following important points will also be considered here: external and, of course, external insulation of a country house, selection and purchase of materials, progress of work, insulation of doors, windows, walls, ceilings, floors and much more. If we talk about insulating the facade of your country house, then there are the following methods:

“Wet” means a system of bonded thermal insulation. That is, it is a multi-layer structure, each layer of which is fastened to the previous one. Mineral wool, polystyrene foam and extruded polystyrene foam are most often used as a thermal insulation layer. It is most suitable for brick houses.

“Dry” is siding. Siding is a universal material and this is its main advantage. There are many varieties of this material: steel, wood, vinyl and others. The method itself is considered universal.

Hinged ventilated facade - more suitable for wooden premises. The most expensive method of insulation, consisting of several layers. As a rule, its elements include: sub-cladding structure; facing material; anchor fastenings; heat and waterproofing layers. Such a façade is called breathable because there is a gap between its layers that prevents moisture from entering and mold forming inside.

External insulation of the cottage

Where to start insulating the outside of your home? First you need to secure the starter strip for the siding. It can be metal or wood, and it is fixed directly to the wall of the house with special fastenings - brackets. But it is important to remember that if the house is wooden, then the starting bar should also be used wooden. It is important not to forget to get rid of various debris, for example, falling off plaster or bricks. You should also note where items that need to be fixed directly to the wall, such as an air conditioner, will be located on the wall. At this stage it will be possible to correct unevenness or roughness of the walls. This can be done using brackets of different heights, thus aligning the mounting strips evenly. After the initial work, work begins directly with the insulation itself. The insulation is attached to the wall. The most popular and high-quality basalt insulation. This insulation is practically non-flammable and is environmentally friendly.

He can be:

— Soft — Semi-liquid — Liquid

Is it worth using polystyrene foam as facade insulation?

Polystyrene foam, unlike basalt insulation, does not breathe at all; due to the use of foam plastic, mold may appear, which, of course, does not have the best effect on health. Ecowool will be a good alternative to basalt insulation. Ecowool comes in dry and wet form; it must be applied using a sprayer or manually. After the insulation, wind protection needs to be laid and secured on top.

Then you can begin installing the siding. When attaching, it is important to remember that you need to leave space between the windbreak and the siding, and also make gaps below and above so that air can circulate in this space. This system is durable and will allow excess moisture to escape.

So, it is important to adhere to a certain technology:

Creation of high-quality sheathing, frame for securing insulation; Treat the walls of the house, clean them, lay the material and then secure it; Protect the base layer with windproofing; Cover everything with siding;

How and with what to insulate a cottage?

When insulating a cottage, the “wet method” is popular today. It owes its name to a technology based on mixing glue and water.

This technology has stood the test of time; it involves multi-stage processes and strict adherence to the rules. The process does not require special skills and allows the use of a wide range of materials and many methods of decorative coatings.

There are two directions of the “wet” method:

  • insulation with mineral wool;
  • insulation using polystyrene foam or extruded polystyrene foam.

The most popular insulation is using polystyrene foam.


This is a fairly cheap material with a low thermal conductivity of 0.039 W/(m•K). The cost of other substances for the insulation system is also low. Polystyrene foam is non-hygroscopic, that is, it does not absorb moisture. Installation of the system is not difficult. Polystyrene foam production can be found in almost every city; it is cheap and uncomplicated.

The disadvantage of this method of insulation is the variation in the service life of the material from 10 to 50 years, which depends on the quality and density of the material. In addition, if the seal of the insulation is broken, the foam is damaged by rodents.

Extruded polystyrene foam

Expanded polystyrene is one of the types of polystyrene foam, more advanced and free from disadvantages. Its insulation properties are 2 times higher, the thermal conductivity of the material is 0.025 W/(m•K). This means that insulation consumption can be reduced, and effective heat conservation will be ensured by material 5 cm thick.

This type of foam is not eaten by rodents. Expanded polystyrene is distinguished by even lower hygroscopicity and non-flammability compared to polystyrene foam. And the material lasts much longer. The service life of expanded polystyrene is from 30 to 80 years. However, the cost of expanded polystyrene is higher than that of polystyrene foam.

Mineral wool

Mineral wool is considered a worthy competitor to polystyrene foam. In terms of thermal conductivity of 0.041 W/(m•K), it is similar to foam plastic. The cost is more expensive. However, the higher price pays off with warmth and comfort in the home for many years. Moreover, the service life of such insulation ranges from 30 to 80 years.

Mineral wool is not eaten by rodents, it is fireproof and does not allow fire to spread. The disadvantage of insulation is the possibility of moisture accumulation in it. Therefore, strict adherence to the technology, which involves removing excess moisture, is mandatory.

The price range for this material depends on the quality and density of the wool and compliance with installation technology. The production of mineral wool is less common than polystyrene foam. Therefore, material costs increase due to delivery from other regions.

Internal insulation of a country house

When insulating your home inside, as well as outside, it is important to choose high-quality materials that can prevent heat transfer and will effectively protect the house from the inside. At the moment, mineral wool, which contains basalt and fiberglass, is gaining popularity, but when working with this material, you should make sure that the ventilation system is equipped correctly so that in the future moisture will not cause mold.

What needs to be insulated?

When insulating a cottage, special attention should be paid to insulating the foundation of the cottage and walls, as well as ensuring thermal insulation of the roof. It is important to properly arrange window openings, because it is through windows that significant heat loss can occur.

Foundation insulation

Even before starting construction work, you should consider insulating the foundation from heat loss and moisture ingress.

When choosing insulation for the foundation, it is important to select materials that are permeable to water vapor. This is important to eliminate the problem of condensation and subsequent fungal attack on the walls of the cottage.

If a basement is planned to be built in the house, during the design it is necessary to resolve the issue of thermal insulation of the ground floor. A layer of expanded clay or polystyrene is laid between the foundation and the basement walls. This material has low thermal conductivity and acts as a buffer.

Roof insulation

The roof of the cottage should also be well insulated. The way in which this will be done depends on the type of roof and how the space under the roof will be used.

Currently, the market offers a huge range of thermal insulation materials (for example, Rockwool or TechnoNIKOL basalt wool, which can be purchased here:

To insulate the roof, it is better to choose a material that is strong enough, but lightweight, with low thermal conductivity, vapor permeable, and fire resistant. It can be:

  • mineral wool slabs;
  • expanded polystyrene boards;
  • fiberglass boards;
  • foam glass, etc.

The cottage is insulated at the level of the attic floor, and if an attic is planned, then also on the roof slopes.

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Wall insulation

Cottage walls are insulated in different ways. The most affordable and easiest way is internal insulation. However, walls insulated from the inside become less permeable and retain excess moisture in the room. Therefore, this method should only be used when organizing a good ventilation system for the premises.

In addition, you can insulate the house from the outside. However, this solution leads to the need for additional finishing of the facade or the use of a ventilated facade. This is necessary in order to avoid the accumulation of condensation on the walls.

It is believed that the best way to insulate is to place heat-protective material inside the walls. A number of house construction technologies initially provide for the introduction of insulation into the composition of multilayer materials for the construction of walls. Therefore, frame, frame-panel houses or objects created from SIP panels perfectly save heat and maintain good ventilation.

Brick and foam block walls can also be effectively insulated using mineral wool, polystyrene foam and finishing them with plasterboard:

Floor insulation

Without an insulated floor, the house will not be warm, especially if it is wooden. You can thermally insulate the floor in your country house if you insulate the floor of the house from below, so that the wind does not wander and blow in the underground. It’s very easy to do this on your own; to do this, just add sand or expanded clay to the floor - both building materials will retain heat and are very affordable.

To insulate the floor in a country house, you need to decide on the choice of insulation. The so-called floor pie includes:

  1. subfloor (board 20-25 mm);
  2. then a vapor barrier must be done (Izospan film, Yutafol, etc.);
  3. Insulation is laid over it without gaps, that is, a multi-layer structure is made.

Insulation for floors can be different. Let's take a quick look at the features of each option:

  • Penoplex . It is essentially extruded foam. It has excellent characteristics, absorbs sounds well and insulates rooms;
  • Ecowool . Many country houses and cottages today are insulated with ecowool. This is a modern, environmentally friendly material that is applied to the floor by spraying;
  • Roll insulation . Often, an insulated floor in a wooden house is installed using roll insulation materials, such as “Ursa”, “Izover”, “Rockwool”. The thickness of the insulation is taken to be 100-150 mm, cut off with a margin.
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Insulation of the roof of a country house

An important object for high-quality insulation of your country house is the roof, because approximately 12% of warm air escapes through the roof. What you should pay close attention to if you choose insulation for the roof: - External weather factors - Water resistance of the material; — Safety The best option is stone wool, but it is better not to use polymer materials, because they are highly flammable.

Insulating the walls of a country house

The most important object when insulating a house is the walls; they have the greatest heat transfer.

Working with walls when insulating:

Where to begin? Pre-clean the wall of various debris, treat the walls with a special solution and caulk all the gaps. Which material to choose? Jute fabric is best suited. It is easy to install, simply attach it with a stapler, it does not rot and is of no interest to moths. What should you not use? Felt, wool, batting - all these materials quickly become saturated with moisture, this will lead to rotting and mold.

Do I need to insulate my garden house?

The main purpose of a house in a garden or vegetable garden lies in the formation of living conditions outside the city, as close as possible to those at home, for living or relaxing in a suburban area. Many gardeners extend the gardening season until late autumn, and sometimes even willingly come to their dacha in winter.

Such a vacation in cold weather is often impossible, since the houses have a simple and not insulated structure - a frame made of beams covered with clapboard. The interior is finished with plywood or fiberboard. If such a home does not have proper thermal insulation, then it will be very difficult and expensive to maintain heat in the summer garden house.

Heating costs increase significantly as all the heat escapes through the walls, attic and floor. You need to think about insulating the house yourself; besides, the work is not particularly difficult. To save materials and fuel for heating the room, you can not insulate the entire house, but only one or two rooms.

Only after this can you spend your weekends in early spring and winter in comfort, without rushing to get work done. But before that, remember that all thermal insulation work for living in winter should be carried out when it is warm outside - in this case, you will insulate your country house inexpensively and efficiently.

Insulation of country house windows

Windows, like the roof, lead to significant heat loss. They should pay close attention, especially if ordinary wooden windows are installed in the dacha. Naturally, replacing wooden windows with plastic ones, which will not let in as much cold, is much simpler, but much more difficult financially. Therefore, special attention should be paid to windows when insulating a country house.

Stages of window insulation:

- Cleaning. The surface should be cleared of debris, check whether the glass is intact, and seal the cracks. Gaps can be sealed with spray foam, but it is not as durable as silicone caulk. — Sealant. After cleaning, glue the sealing tape. You can secure it with staples or nails. — Heat-saving film. This material is applied directly to the glass, making sure that no folds or bubbles form when gluing. - Slopes. You shouldn't forget about them either. You can use mineral wool, it is attached with glue.

Insulation of a country house ‒ Thermal insulation technology

The technology of effective thermal insulation depends on the location of the building, from what building material and to what quality the building was built. In the case of a country house that needs to be well insulated with your own hands for living in winter, the following structural elements must be properly insulated:

  • Floors on the ground;
  • in a cold basement, first floor floors;
  • external, load-bearing walls;
  • in a cold attic, attic floor;
  • attic roof.

For a clearer, expanded view of each thermal insulation work, let’s consider these installation activities in more detail...

Insulation of floors on the ground

Construction work related to insulation of floors along the ground may be required if the building has a basement. And, if they plan to use it, as a warm room. For thermal insulation work, two types of thermal products are suitable:

  1. Extruded polystyrene foam;
  2. Expanded clay gravel.

Scheme of floor insulation on the ground with expanded clay.
If expanded clay is used, then thermal insulation work is carried out in the following order:

  1. By compacting, the base soil is well compacted;
  2. The bedding is made from coarse or medium sand. The optimal thickness depends on the characteristics of the soil and is ±30 cm;
  3. Expanded clay is poured, with a thickness of 30 to 50 cm - depending on the climate of the construction area;
  4. A layer of waterproofing is laid;
  5. The concrete subfloor is being poured.

Scheme of floor thermal insulation with polystyrene foam
If you plan to insulate with polystyrene foam, then thermal insulation work is carried out in the following sequence:

  1. The soil is compacted;
  2. A backfill is made of sand or crushed stone;
  3. The footing is poured;
  4. Waterproofing is installed;
  5. Next, a layer of penoplex;
  6. After, reinforcement mesh;
  7. At the finish, a concrete subfloor is poured.

To insulate floors on the ground, it is easier and more economical to use expanded clay. The main thing here is to correctly select the optimal layer thickness, taking into account the average air temperature in winter.

Insulation of floors above the basement and attic

High-quality insulation of floors above the basement and attic can be performed by two, more effective and practical, methods of thermal insulation:

  1. Between the joists;
  2. Under the screed.

Thermal insulation schemes for attic floors
The optimal option depends on the design of the floor and the floor pie. Laying insulation between joists is suitable for country houses with ceilings on beams. In this insulation option, almost any heat insulator can be used:

  • Foam plastic and penoplex;
  • polyurethane foam and penoizol;
  • expanded clay and sawdust;
  • mineral wool (slabs and mats);
  • ecowool.

Laying under a screed requires a thermal product with increased rigidity and strength. In this case, it is most acceptable and durable to use penoplex or expanded clay.

Scheme of floor insulation under screed

When installing along joists, first, beams are installed under the flooring. Afterwards, waterproofing is laid between them. If the attic is insulated from the outside, then a vapor barrier is also done. Next, thermal insulation is installed into the space.

For polystyrene foam and penoplex, it is recommended to provide a certain small gap between the slabs and the wood, which is then filled with sealant.

If you plan to lay insulation under the screed, then the work is carried out as follows:

  • Waterproofing is laid on a leveled, clean base (when insulating an attic from the outside - a vapor barrier);
  • Next, insulation is placed (for penoplex, a gap must be made between the plates);
  • when insulating from the outside, it is necessary to provide waterproofing, and when insulating from the inside, also a vapor barrier;
  • after that, the reinforcing mesh is laid;
  • At the finish, the screed is poured.

Insulation scheme for attic floors and ceilings
The second option for thermal insulation is from the ceiling side. For attic flooring, it is undesirable. Because the thermal structure is located on the warm air side. For a basement floor, insulation from the outside is a more correct solution, but extremely labor-intensive. The heat insulator is fixed with wooden slats or adhesive.

Insulating the walls of a country house

There are two options that allow for high-quality insulation of the walls of a country house - from the inside and the outside. When fixing the heat insulator from the facade of the building, work is carried out in the following order:

  • The walls are thoroughly cleaned of dust and dirt;
  • waterproofing is fixed;
  • mounted, for insulation, frame;
  • thermal insulation is installed;
  • then, a wind barrier is attached to the insulation layer;
  • At the final stage, the outer cladding is performed.

Scheme of thermal insulation of the walls of a dacha from the outside
To have a more complete idea of ​​the thermal insulation of the walls of a building from the outside, be sure to read: “Insulation of walls outside a private house.”

It is also important to know that for mineral wool and ecowool, it is necessary to provide a ventilated layer on the outside. Between the heat insulator and the outer sheathing, the thickness should be from 5 to 10 cm. Attaching the insulation to the wall depends on the selected type of thermal material.

When fixing thermal insulation from the inside, installation work should be performed in the following order:

  1. We clean surfaces from dust and dirt;
  2. We fix the waterproofing;
  3. We install insulation;
  4. Next, installation of vapor barrier;
  5. At the finish line, interior decoration of the room.

Scheme for insulating the walls of a dacha from the inside

Insulation of a country house ‒ Attic roof

The most common type of heat insulator when insulating an attic roof with your own hands is rigid slabs of mineral wool. The sequence of thermal insulation work is as follows:

Insulation scheme for the attic roof of a dacha

  • Installation of the rafter system;
  • fixing a layer of waterproofing and wind protection;
  • installation of counter-lattice;
  • installation of sheathing;
  • laying roofing material;
  • installation, between the rafters, of a heat insulator;
  • arrangement of vapor barrier;
  • installation of the bottom sheathing;
  • finishing - ceiling lining.

For convenient, quick installation of mineral wool, it is recommended to take the pitch of the rafters such that in the light between them the distance is either 58 or 118 cm. After thermal insulation of the roof of the building, insulation of the country house with your own hands is considered complete.

For a more complete idea about the arrangement of an attic roof in a private building, be sure to read the article: “How to make an attic floor in a house.”


Insulation of country house doors

The function of a door in a house is not only to protect the owners from the entry of a thief, but also to protect them from the penetration of cold. To insulate the door, you can tighten it, cover the edges with felt or a special elastic band. But if there is a metal door in your house, then you will have to struggle, so to speak. You can, of course, insulate the door leaf - this is the easiest way. Or you can attach 2-3 bars to this door, and cover it with foam plastic, attaching it between the bars and attach an OSB sheet on top.

Insulation of the floor in the country house

An important detail when insulating a house is its dryness. For floor insulation, there are a lot of different materials, for example: - Foam plastic. This material is quite simple and high quality to use. It does not absorb moisture, it is quite strong and durable. - Minvata. This material has many positive qualities: it is environmentally friendly, wear-resistant, and most importantly, it is quite cheap. - Penofol. This is a fairly new material, which means modern. It has proven itself very well in the market.

What is important to pay attention to when insulating the floor? Here are some important points:

— Health-safe materials; — Good thermal insulation; — Durability;

Let's look at the different options for floor insulation:

— Double floor. The bottom layer, which consists of rough boards, must be attached directly to the beams, then we lay the “finish” coating on the “rough” structure. — Wooden logs. Such beams are attached to the foundation, then a subfloor is laid, and the free space is filled with thermal insulation.

How to save money on insulating a country house and is it worth it?

You can do home insulation yourself, without resorting to the services of professionals, which will reduce waste by about half. But this is a controversial point, since it is not for nothing that there is a saying: “The miser pays twice.” If the owner himself takes on such complex work without calculating his strength, he risks burning out. You can use cheap insulation or whatever is at hand. Also a controversial point, since it will of course be cheap, but there can be no talk of any quality or durability, because cheap materials allow moisture to pass through, which leads to mold, and they also do not retain heat well. As a result, the owner of the house will have to redo everything much earlier.

What types of insulation are there?

There is a wide range of thermal insulation on the market. This makes the choice somewhat difficult. To find the optimal solution, you must carefully consider each available option. The following types of wall insulation :

  • glass wool;
  • basalt eco wool;
  • extruded polystyrene foam;
  • polyurethane foam.

Important! Each option has certain technical characteristics, advantages and disadvantages. To make the right choice, you need to carefully study the information about each thermal insulation.

Glass wool

Glass wool is made from broken glass and a mixture of sand under high temperature (15000C). It is used to insulate various structures both outside and inside. The main advantages of glass wool include:

  1. High heat and sound insulation properties.
  2. Environmentally friendly. Natural components are used to make glass wool. Therefore, it is completely safe for humans, which makes it possible to use it to insulate walls inside the house.
  3. Strength and durability. Thanks to the special structure of the structure, cotton wool can easily withstand heavy loads. Thanks to this, it is a durable material.
  4. Non-flammability. The fiberglass-based material can withstand high temperatures (4500C). This increases its resistance to open fire.
  5. Resistance to negative environmental factors. Glass wool easily tolerates vibrations and high humidity. The risk of mold and mildew is minimized.
  6. Mice and rats do not breed in glass wool. This feature is very important when it comes to a country house.

Unfortunately, this material has some disadvantages, including:

  1. Fragility. Over time, cotton wool shrinks, which negatively affects its service life.
  2. Hygroscopicity. Glass wool easily absorbs moisture, which reduces service life. To eliminate this phenomenon, it is necessary to carry out a vapor barrier. As a result, the cost of work will increase slightly.
  3. Installation features. To protect yourself from glass fibers, you must use protective equipment such as goggles, respirators and gloves when laying glass wool.

Despite its disadvantages, glass wool is widely used for insulating various structures, including interior walls .

Insulation based on basalt wool

Such tile and roll insulation materials are made from rock. To obtain fibers, it is crushed and then heated in special ovens. In the next step, fiber formation is performed using drums and air flow.

Among the main advantages of basalt wool are:

  1. Low thermal conductivity and good thermal insulation. Thanks to numerous layers of air inside the material, it optimally retains heat in the room.
  2. Low moisture permeability. The material easily withstands the negative effects of high air humidity. Water is not absorbed into the cotton wool, eliminating the risk of damage, mold or mildew.
  3. Excellent vapor permeability. Moisture easily passes through the material without accumulating in it. Therefore, it is often used to treat buildings with high humidity.
  4. Resistant to open fire. Insulation based on basalt wool can withstand heating up to 11140C.

Basalt wool is a safe, highly effective and cheap wall insulation . Therefore, it is recommended to use it for cladding the inside of a house.

Extruded polystyrene foam

This material is a modification of conventional polystyrene foam. The peculiarity is that during the production process polystyrene foam undergoes extrusion. As a result, it is given properties that make it better than foam.

In addition to high heat and sound insulation qualities, extruded polystyrene foam has high density and strength. This greatly simplifies installation. To fasten the slabs, you can use large dowels without fear that they will collapse.

Due to the high density and thermal insulation, thin slabs will be needed for insulation. Especially when compared with polystyrene foam.

Polyurethane foam

Polyurethane foam is an insulation material that has many advantages. Depending on the density, the material can be soft, hard or sprayable. The last option is the most popular. Among the main advantages are:

  • high heat and sound insulation;
  • creating a seamless coating;
  • excellent resistance to mechanical damage and negative environmental factors;
  • efficiency;
  • versatility and much more.

Important! The disadvantages of polyurethane foam include difficulty in application. This will require special equipment, which significantly increases the cost of the work.

Attic insulation

Often, fiberglass and mineral wool are used to insulate a country attic. Fiberglass is both the most popular and cheapest building material. It is not subject to fire, which is one of the main advantages, and does not allow heat to pass through.

But still, even such a seemingly ideal material has disadvantages:

— Fine dust from fragments of glass fibers. You must not allow it to come into contact with the skin or mucous membrane, so you will need to work in full equipment and a respirator. — Also, this material is not practical for use near stacks located at an angle; over time, it will no longer fit tightly. Mineral wool is used for attic insulation more often than glass wool due to its practicality in use. This is a lightweight material that is not harmful to health and is environmentally friendly. So, the main thing to remember when insulating a dacha is that you must adhere to construction and sanitary standards, and do not forget about safety when working with building materials. It is also important to remember that insulating a dacha yourself is not always a good solution; if you have doubts about your own abilities or knowledge, you should resort to the services of professionals who will provide high-quality work.

Features of roof insulation

Insulating an attic space is not difficult. The simplest and most affordable way is to insulate the ceiling. This work can be done at any time or during a major home renovation. Step-by-step instructions will help you complete the work quickly and efficiently:

  1. Step 1: installation of the frame. For such a structure, both wood and metal profiles are suitable. The choice of material for the base depends on costs, type of insulation and individual preferences. But both materials cope with the task in the best way. The frame is installed around the perimeter of the room. Experts recommend performing work in accordance with the level indicators. This way you will get not only a warm, but also an even room. This is especially important for the attic. The frame is reinforced with crossbars, which will fix the heat-insulating element;
  2. Step 2: laying insulation. The easiest way to carry out the work is to install special insulating boards. The material used for internal insulation can be very different. His choice depends on the capabilities of the home owners. All modern products are manufactured in accordance with regulatory requirements and flawlessly fulfill their purpose. But, as a rule, preference is given to mineral wool or polyester as insulation;
  3. Step 3: installation of a vapor barrier material that will prevent moisture from entering and loss of insulation properties;
  4. Step 4: work on covering the ceiling and walls of the attic. For these types of work, many people prefer drywall. Modern material is easy to install and creates an elegant design.

When creating roof insulation, it is necessary to protect your hands and face from dust and particles of material. Goggles and a respirator are suitable for this, or you can use a special mask. This point is very important when performing installation work, since you need to worry about safety in advance.

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